Transportation, Activity Opportunities, and Capability
Kita, Hideyuki (2016). 'Transportation, Activity Opportunities, and Capability' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, Tokyo 2016.
topics: Capability Measurement and Index, Local Development and Communities, Quantitative Methods
abstract: Generally speaking for transportation in a local area in Japan, it is hypothesized that disparity of activity opportunities between the urban and suburban sites, if it really exists, is influenced by achieving different levels of public transport service in the area. Is this hypothesis true? Not many studies have been done so far on richness or poverty of the activity opportunities in relation to the public transport service. One of the reasons why there are few studies concerning this matter is thought to be because of difficulties in measuring the opportunity set for the activity, whereas measuring achievement of the activity is considered not to be difficult. In order to quantify the disparity of activity opportunities between localities and correlation with transportation service level, this study applies Sen’s capability approach to the measurement of the activity opportunities, and regards the opportunity for activity as a capability. As typical examples for the activity opportunities and transportation services in the local area, grocery-shopping opportunity and bus service, respectively, are focused on in this study. To capture the disparity of the grocery-shopping opportunities, this study analyzes the relationship between the grocery-shopping opportunity and food purchase frequency, facility accessibility, resource availability of an individual, and so on. The aim of this study is twofold: First, to conduct an area survey of the activities and do statistical test of difference in two means between the activity opportunities in two sites chosen among all sites belonging to a local city, and second, to analyze whether the difference in two means is correlated to the level of bus service provided in each site.