Børhaug, Frédérique Brossard (2012). "To what extent can the anti-racist discourse in Norwegian and French civic education empower minority youth?" Paper presented at the 9th annual conference of the HDCA, 5-7 September 2012, Jakarta, Indonesia.

The study of French and Norwegian curricula for civic education in upper secondary school shows a problematic hegemonic discourse Universalist/spiritualist anti-racism (AR1s) – which leaves the multicultural school insufficiently prepared to support a democratic citizenship able to include non-dominant ethnocultural groups. Through the lens of the capability approach, the paper argues that the French and Norwegian antiracist school discourses offer too little opportunity for minority youth to discuss valued ways of beings and doings; this can entail a capability poverty of aspiration, voice and hope. In the worst case scenario, this may lead to skepticism, conformism, violence or too uncritical a compliance to a dominating culture. The study of French and Norwegian curricula attempts to critically reflect on the extent to which the anti-racist school discourse e can provide fairer grounds for minority youth in disadvantaged urban areas to develop their ability to aspire.