Socio economic and health correlates of disability in India
Mishra, Radhe Shyam; Mohanthy, Sanjay K (2016). 'Socio economic and health correlates of disability in India' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, Tokyo 2016.
Disabled people suffered from multiple deprivations; poor health, low educational attainment, lower work participation, discrimination in the society and higher incidence of poverty. Disability for disable people differ by the type of disability due to health status of different type of disable people. In India disability surveys from late 1980s and late 1990s have finds increasing prevalence of disability. As per the 1981 Census, India had enumerated 1,118,948 disabled persons compared to 21,960,769 disabled persons in 2001 census. In India 2.3 percent of people are disable as per census 2011. Prevalence of disability and type of disability differ by the socio economic perspective in India due to socio economic variation and regional disparity in India. In India with demographic and epidemiological transition. Studies on socio economic and health correlate of disability are limited in India. This paper to examine the socio economic health correlate the disability in India using the unit data from District Level Household Survey (DLHS 4). A total of six disability; namely, mental, visual, hearing, speech, locomoto, multiple, and others are analysed. Bi-variate analysis has been used to understand the differentials in disability and type of disable by selected social, economic and demographic correlates. The logistic regression analysis is used to ascertain the significant predictors of disability. Results suggests that the prevalence of any disability was higher (2800) per 100,000 population in India. While the prevalence of disability was highest for visual (800) among type of disable followed by locomoto (490), hearing (420) and mental (320). Age gradient of disability is quite strong; about 1140 person had any disability by age 10 compared to 3290 by age 40. Visual disability had higher among the older age people followed by the hearing disability. Economic differentials in disability is found to be most important predictor suggests that poor are more likely to be disabled. Prevalence of any disability was 3680 among poorest wealth quintile compared to 2540 among richest wealth quintile (per 100,000 population). Result of logistic regression suggests that age, sex, chronic diseases are significant predictors of disability. Results are robust across the states of India. The state of Andhra Pradesh had the higher locomoto disable (660). Disability higher among the uneducated people, study find that the speech disability is higher among people have below primary education, disability decreases with level of education, female have higher disability than the male, those with chronic disability are 60% more likely to suffer any disability compared to those who did not had any chronic diseases. Chhattisgarh followed by Andhra Pradesh have highest percent of any disability while Arunachal Pradesh followed by Sikkim have the lowest percent of any disability. Overall disability in the stats of India is higher among the Chhattisgarh followed by Andhra Pradesh, and lowest in the Arunachal Pradesh. While the type of disability visual disability is higher followed by the others, locomoto, hearing, mental, multiple and speech. Disability among religion is higher among the Hindu religion than the Muslim followed by Christian and other religion. SC and ST caste have higher than the other caste groups like OBC and others. Those people have the chronic disease have higher percent of disability among those people have not any chronic disease in stats of India.