Durand, Jorge (2009). "Processes of Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean (1950-2008)" United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports Research Paper 2009/24 United Nations Development Programme pp. 1-47

The main characteristic of the Latin American migration on the 20th century was the change of flow. Until the 1950s, Latin America received migrants from Europe and the Middle East. As a result of economic change, political instability, and economic crisis, Latin America started exporting migrant workers. Now, Latin American migrants mainly go to the U.S., and in less extend to Europe (i.e. Spain, Italy, and Portugal), and in some cases to Japan as it is the case of Peru and Brazil. Several migrant patterns follow this process, which is characteristic to the massive emigration at the dawn of the 21st century.