Gigler, Björn-Sören (2007). "Poverty, inequality and human development of indigenous peoples in Bolivia" Paper presented at the 4th annual conference of the HDCA, 18-20 September 2007, New York, USA.

Bolivia, with a GDP per capita of $980, is the poorest country of South America (EIU, 2005). With a population of about 9 million people, this land-locked country has had since its independence in 1825 a legacy of extreme levels of poverty, high economic and social inequality, and political instability (Klein, 1982).