Crétiéneau, Anne-Marie (2009). "Participation and empowerment through self-reliant survival strategies " Paper presented at the 6th annual conference of the HDCA, 10-12 September 2009, Lima, Peru.

Facing mal-development, academicians, international institutions and development practitioners are moving towards bottom-up strategies which involve directly people in the projects and actions. These aim the livelihood outcomes which individuals and their families or communities aspire to, considering their territory's potentialities. We demonstrate which practical response forms survival strategy based on self-reliance principles. It implies participation and empowerment insofar as people are deciding to take charge of their own problem of life and as policy processes allow a community-driven development. All monographs throughout the world reveal the same essential characteristics and underlying philosophy. It enlightens on interconnections between local, national and global levels and how regeneration through one's own efforts is combined with participation and solidarity. Individual self-reliance also rehabilitates values of being and the capabilities in order to construct oneself. This dynamic movement from the 'periphery' conduces to a realizable utopian model for human development that enhances the capability approach.