Kucuk, Nezahat, and Mehmet Balcilar (2011). "On the Gender Gap, ICT, and Institutional and Social Infrastructure: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis" Paper presented at the 8th annual conference of the HDCA, 6-8 September 2011, the Hague, the Netherlands.

The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between gender gap, information communication technology (ICT), and institutional and social infrastructure. The study analyzes how the ICT interacts with social and institutional infrastructure to impact the gender equality. Using a panel dataset for 209 countries covering the period from 2000 to 2010 and dynamic panel generalized method of moments estimation (GMM), the paper finds that both ICT and institutional infrastructure have significant positive effect on gender equality. More importantly, combination of better ICT and institutional quality exerts an independent influence on gender equality, over and above any influence each of these two variables may separately have.