Myths and challenges on sexual reproductive health of Nicaraguan rural women.

Mendoza Mejia, Ligia Andrea (2016). 'Myths and challenges on sexual reproductive health of Nicaraguan rural women.' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, Tokyo 2016.

abstract Research Context Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) is essential for individuals, couples and families as well as for social and economic development of communities and nations. (World Health Organization (WHO) 2004: 3). Throughout the historical development of mankind, values ​​have been passed on through culture, religion, customs, etc., relating to the role and the role to be assumed by different sexes in society, which have influenced SRH(Santi Herrera 2000).  Worldwide, according to the United Nations Fund for Children (UNICEF), each year 15 million adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age  give birth worldwide. 95% of them, occur in developing countries(Martínez 2012). Our world today has the biggest group of teenagers in the history of mankind 1.1 billion adolescents aged 10-19 years old, 85% in developing countries; facing multiple risks in their sexual and reproductive health( Nuevo Diario. 2011). Nicaragua is one of the least developed countries in Latin America, the second poorest country in the region, only after Haiti. More than 80% of the poor are living in rural areas (World Bank 2014th). Nicaragua has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in all of Latin America, in the country almost 110 in 1000 adolescents (15-19 years) are mothers, the regional average is 66.4 (Gender Equality Observatory Latin America and the Caribbean 2011) . The teen pregnancy, occurring mainly in rural areas, according to the Demographic and Health Survey(ENDESA) 2011-2012. The highest percentage of adolescents who have ever been pregnant in the country, has Jinotega with 38% (In Nuevo Diario. 2011). Jinotega is characterized by high distribution of rural population with high levels of severe poverty (National Institute of Information and Development (INIDE) 2007.); mountainous area of ​​difficult access, with marked and severe lag in educational infrastructure. Methodological aspects This research analyzes the socio-economic and cultural variables that  influence sexual practices and SRH of women childbearing age in the population of the northern Nicaragua (Jinotega). This research aims to explain the cultural and socioeconomic context that affect  the SRH of women childbearing age (12-49 years). This study is a contribution to improving public policy, educational approach to reproductive rights of the population and to prioritize strategies, programs and projects coupled with civil society, for the benefit of their integral human development. This study is a diagnosis for explanatory purposes and purposeful reach. In its realization we used  quantitative (378 survey) and qualitative (17  in-depth interviews ) methodologies . Furthermore, we worked with primary and secondary sources. The subject of this study are several generations of women childbearing age who have productive dedication of the coffee.  In the main content of this study, a typology of profiles built rural women of childbearing age. Living conditions in the homes of women childbearing age are described and an analysis of relationship is established between their way of life, the kind of knowledge with the attention and care shown in its SRH practices. The results of this study have been proposed to describe the potential relationship between socioeconomic conditions of the home and fertility; also it makes visible differences in both patterns and levels of teenage pregnancy, according to differences in the conditions of family life, and especially in regard to access to ownership, mode of attachment to professional work and membership some kind of trade organization. The study shows that the socioeconomic conditions of family life, may differentiate in shaping strategies and individual projects of life for women and couples, which could in turn affect reproductive trajectories and the degree of economic and social empowerment of rural women.      

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