Fotros, Mohammad Hassan, and Esaeil Torkamani (2011). "Modified Human Development and Sustainability in the Environmental Kuznets Curve, a Panel Data Analysis of Selected Developed, Developing, and Less Developed Countries" Paper presented at the 8th annual conference of the HDCA, 6-8 September 2011, the Hague, the Netherlands.

There are a broad consensus that economic growth can no longer continue if it does not take into account pollutions, wastes and risks arrived unexpectedly on the environment by production and consumption. To explain the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation, some studies have appealed to Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis that alludes to an inverse U-shape relation between economic growth and environmental degradation. But the EKC hypothesis has been subject to criticisms such as its ignorance of sustainable development. This paper intends to take in account and to integrate the concepts of Human Development (HD) and of Sustainable Development (SD) in the analysis of Environmental Kuznets Curve. For this purpose, by using panel data methodology, we analyze the related data of 58 countries comprising developed and developing countries in three income groups. Results indicate that there is an inverse N relationship between non-sustainability and Modified Human Development Index (HDIM) in countries with high per capita income, the first turning point of Modified Human Development Index is about 0.88 and the second turning point in Modified Human Development Index is about 0.93. The average Modified Human Development Index for countries with high per capita income lies in the range 0.87- 0.95. For The countries with average per capita income, an inverse N relationship is also recognizable between non-sustainability and Modified Human Development Index; first 2 turning point in Modified Human Development Index is about 0.65 and the second turning point in Modified Human Development Index is at about 0.82. According to the average Modified Human Development Index, countries with average per capita income are in the range of 0.65 to 0.81. It could be concluded that the average per capita income countries are in the middle of the Curve. For countries with low per capita income, this relationship is in shape of an inverted U. for these groups of countries the turning point of the Curve is at i 0.395; and according to the Modified Human Development Index, they are ranged in the 0.36-0.53. So, these groups of countries point, according to Modified Human Development Index, are situated at the highest level of non-sustainability.