Barros , Pedro Pita , and Isabel Medalho Pereira (2009). "Health Care and Health Outcomes of Migrants: Evidence from Portugal" United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports Research Paper 2009/28 United Nations Development Programme pp. 1-64

This paper studies the performance of immigrants relative to natives, in terms of their health status, use of health care services, lifestyles, and coverage of health expenditures. We base the analysis on international evidence that identified a healthy immigrant effect, complemented by empirical research on the Portuguese National Health Survey. Furthermore, we assess whether differences in health performance depend on the personal characteristics of the individuals or can be directly associated with their migration experience.