Gender differences in Italian children capabilities.

Maria Laura Di Tommaso, Addabo (2009). "Gender differences in Italian children capabilities." Paper presented at the 6th annual conference of the HDCA, 10-12 September 2009, Lima, Peru.

The paper will explore gender differences among Italian children capabilities. In a previous paper on children capabilities in Italy (Addabbo, Di Tommaso 2009) , we have found that there are many gender differences and in this paper we analyze these differences and explore the causes. The capabilities analysed in this paper are 1.Living an healthy life; 2.Senses Imagination and thought 3.Play We will use data from ISTAT 1998 FSS (Famiglie, Soggetti Sociali e Condizione dell’Infanzia) and ISTAT 2006 multipurpose survey matched with Survey on Household Income and Wealth (1998, 2006) , and data from the OECD Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) for 2006. First, we utilize descriptive statistics to assess different achievements for the above capabilities by gender for children in different age groups (6-10 and 11-14). We also consider different areas of the country to take into account the effect of different institutions. Secondly, we will use the tools offered by Structural Equation Models. We estimate a SEM model where the three above capabilities are estimated as latent variables which are intrinsically interrelated. For each of these capabilities, a set of indicators of functionings is utilised. We explore the freedom of choice dimension, utilising information on the availability and quality of infrastructures which can influence children choice sets. Moreover, in order to take into account gender discrimination embedded in the society, we utilise gender gaps in labour force participation and gender pay gaps across regions as proxies of the differences that girls and boys may have in their choice-freedom. These structures of the capabilities will be related to parents’ employment and personal characteristics to analyse the effect of family conversion factors on children’s well being.
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