Gondard-Delcroix, Claire (2007). "From cultural dimensions to institutional generation of poverty. A qualitative survey in Madagascar Highlands" Paper presented at the 4th annual conference of the HDCA, 18-20 September 2007, New York, USA.

As early as the seventies, poverty started to be considered as a deeply multidimensional phenomenon, and over the last three decades, this concept was gradually extended towards fields well beyond the mere monetary aspect. Razafindrakoto and Roubaud (2005) go back over the progressive evolution of the poverty concept.