Freedom’s cracks in reclusion. a rapprochement to the expansion of freedoms in prisons

Soria Torres, Rosa Beatriz (2018). 'Freedom's cracks in reclusion. A rapprochement to the expansion of freedoms in prisons' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2018.

Abstract

En contextos de privación como la pobreza, el hambre o la discapacidad, estudiados por (Sen, 2010) (Narayan, 2000) (Alkire, 2007) (Vakis, Rigolini y Lucchetti, 2015), entre otros, las personas formulan estrategias para enfrentar sus circunstancias y expande sus libertades Específicamente, Sen (2007) dice que generalmente "elegimos dentro de restricciones particulares ..." y que lo hacemos incluso en esas circunstancias con restricciones estrictas donde nuestra libertad de elección es "extraordinariamente limitada". ¿Esto es siempre así? ¿Qué sucede en la reclusión, en un contexto que por definición restringe, regula, condiciona, priva a las libertades?

Los estudios de psicología y sociología nos dicen acerca de cómo el "confinamiento" socava el control de la vida e incluso puede producir impotencia aprendida; y otros estudios muestran las diferentes formas de adaptarse a contextos restrictivos (Goffman, 2012) (Foucault, 2015) (Barbier, 2014) (CEAS, 2015) (Pereira, 2017) (Mercado, 2014), similar a los antes mencionados. Sin embargo, no existen estudios previos sobre la reclusión del Enfoque de Desarrollo Humano (DH) que explique cómo se podrían expandir las libertades en este contexto particular, por lo tanto, para este primer acercamiento nos preguntamos de qué forma las estrategias desplegadas por los internos la expansión de sus libertades?

Con la intención de responder esta pregunta; llevamos simbólicamente el Enfoque de Desarrollo Humano a la puerta del Anexo Establecimiento de Mujeres de Chorrillos (EP Anexo), una prisión de máxima seguridad, pequeña en capacidad de albergue, con baja superpoblación (menos del 10%, las organizaciones de derechos humanos consideran la sobrepoblación de 20%) y donde existe un control estricto sobre los internos -muy cercano a la definición de "institución total" de Erving Goffman (2012) y distante de los establecimientos penitenciarios de varones estudiados por Pérez Guadalupe (2000) donde define la población penal, en la mayoría, sus propias reglas.

The purpose of this research is to explore how the strategies deployed by the internal ones configure the expansion of freedoms; for this, we will identify the strategies along routines and activities carried out daily by the internal ones; we will characterize the functionings achieved by the inmates based on the decisions they make and how they negotiate those decisions to do what they value; and, we will explore cracks of freedom and potential expansion of freedoms based on the reasons they have for assessing what they do and in light of the relationship between these strategies and the functionings they achieve.

We propose, for this, an exploratory investigation based on a mainly qualitative methodology in search of a comprehensive rapprochment of the "reality" that is constructed and of "how" the internal ones build it through the case study (EP Anexo). In this way, the contextual circumstances that determine said reality are highlighted, as well as their influence on the perceptions and evaluations of both the confinement and freedom. This will allow additional validation of a generalizable methodology in terms of design as well as specific to each case (prison establishment). The techniques used are documentary review, direct observation, in-depth and semi-structured interviews and group work.

The jail is a place to live, a physical one and also relational; that is, it is a space where identities, relationships and stories are inscribed; the person recognizes himself and an "other"; perceptions are formed and deformed; mold assessments; in short, a space where both "confinement" and "freedom" are constructed subjectively and intersubjectively. We thus define four spaces where -with different margin of freedom- valuable functionings could be possible: 1) basic routines: execution of daily tasks and use and displacement through the physical spaces of the prison; 2) programmed activities: participation in activities arranged by the penitentiary institution, whether work or school; 3) own spaces: generation and management of individual or collective initiatives for their own benefit or that of third parties, may be use of free time, visiting time, participation in alternative activities (non-state); and 4) socialization, transverse to the other three: forms of relationship between them and with "others" (family, security personnel, treatment staff, workshops, volunteers, etc.).

On the other hand, research has been structured in stages: 1) understanding of the context in which we account for the spatial distribution of the prison; we characterize the penal population by age, legal status, etc.; and we characterize the institutional organization based on the regulations that regulate its operation, especially its procedures. 2) Subjective construction of freedom and exploration of the strategies used by the inmates. 3) Of intersubjective understanding, participatory dialogue among inmates, of potential valuable functionings and cracks of freedom.

La presentación corresponderá a la presentación de los resultados de la investigación basada en el trabajo de campo realizado en EP Anexo en Lima - Perú, durante los meses de septiembre a noviembre de 2017, con la participación de los reclusos, el personal penitenciario y los profesionales de instituciones (talleres).

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