Cueto, Santiago, Gabriela Guerrero, Juan León, and Elisa Seguin and Ismael Muñoz (2009). "Explaining and overcoming marginalization in education: a focus on ethnic/language minorities in Peru" Paper presented at the 6th annual conference of the HDCA, 10-12 September 2009, Lima, Peru.

Inequality is one of the main social challenges for Latin America and other developing regions. Education is often seen as a way to overcome inequalities, but often times it does exactly the contrary. There are many predictors of educational inequality, such as parental education (the educational results of children correlate positively with that of their parents), area of residence (rural children often time have lower indicators than urban children), and first language learnt at home (children learning an indigenous language have lower educational indicators than children who have learned Spanish), among others2. The focus of this paper will be on the educational gaps in primary and secondary education between the Spanish- and Indigenous-speaking populations of Peru but will include analysis of the other predictors. The main goals of this paper are to: a) document the gap in educational opportunities and outcomes between the Spanish and Indigenous populations; b) present statistical analysis with predictors of the gaps in achievement; and c) discuss the educational policies targeting bilingual populations in Peru and explore alternatives based on the data analyzed in the paper.