Yandrapu, Bharath Sandip Kumar (2017). '“Evaluating Sanitation policies for capability enhancements & social change.”' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, Cape Town 2017.


Sanitation as a basic human right has been granted to the human fraternity. While sanitation per say encompasses a range of interventions, the emphasis of incumbent governments has primarily focussed upon the construction of ‘Individual Sanitary Latrines (ISL)’. Though construction of ISL is a step in the right direction, it does not totally capture the spirit behind and thereby creating a disabling environment in accessing the set of capabilities attached to it. Besides, such interventions while creating a dent on the economic empowerment through reductions made on health expenditure by governments, may, in fact, lead to reduced capability enhancements.

This paper is an attempt to explore how the sanitation intervention in creating capabilities amongst households. The intervention doesn't limit itself with one single household rather determine the collective capabilities of the community as a whole.  It addresses the limitations of institutions associated with raising the agency of the actual beneficiaries. Therefore through the study of institutional governance, inherent structural limitations that hinder the strategy implementation is further explored. It also delves on the information asymmetries that exist between the provider and consumer of the sanitation services, and thereby pondering upon the policy-making discourse, particularly in a developing country like, India. Besides, the paper hinges upon the conference theme and tries to explore the dynamic challenge of human development in the context of sanitation intervention and the associated capability enhancements.

The framework being discussed above is being studied in the context of sanitation strategy being implemented in the State of Andhra Pradesh (a State in India). While discussing the structural limitations in the institutions of governance, it also studies the structural limitations that exist within the society. In a succinct way, it tries to look at the multidimensional nature of this development and evolving changes in the capability set of the households. It also draws on the limitations in the ongoing implementation and proposes ways to take forward the paradigm of development to a state of enhanced functioning.

The paper is primarily a qualitative research of the sanitation strategy implementation in the State of Andhra Pradesh. Besides, the paper shall also draw from the documents present in public domain and thereby drawing on the best practices adopted elsewhere. Overall, it attempts to answer whether capabilities of households transcend to newer levels through the construction of ISL.

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