Cuesta Zapata, Mauricio (2010). "Ethnicity and gender inequalities in the Ecuadorean job market" Paper presented at the 7th annual conference of the HDCA, 21-23 September 2010, Amman, Jordan.

Estimates from a regression model show evidence of a no-black-no-indigenous male worker premium on earnings. Earnings gaps are the greatest for indigenous, followed by females and blacks, in that order, whereas, discrimination increases from gender to blacks and indigenous worker. Females are the most discriminated group in the labor market while indigenous are in the other end of the acceptance (or no-acceptance in society) of the different. Their decomposition produces an odd result about differences of opportunities placing indigenous in the greatest inferiority of endowments. Average earnings gaps are 43%, 40% and 15% for indigenous, females and blacks, respectively. 72%, 67% and 24% of the gap is due to discrimination for females, blacks and indigenous, respectively. These results give way to 76%, 33%, and 28%, of the gap explained by endowment inferiority of indigenous, blacks, and females in relation to their respective reference group: no-indigenous, no-black and male worker. Being a female member of an ethnic minority increases the likelihood of being at the low end of the income distribution. Females, just for being, are discriminated in their payments. The average gap for females is 38%. Further, if the odds make this female indigenous, she receives an additional punishment of a wider gap in her payments (17%) with respect to the appropriate payment of the no-indigenous-no-black male payments for a total of 55% earnings gap. The earning differential in payments for being black and woman in the labor market is an additional 4% to the 38% female earnings gap.