Educational inclusion. Utopia or reality in Nicaragua?

Mendoza Mejía, Ligia Andrea (2014). 'Educational inclusion. Utopia or reality in Nicaragua?' Paper presented at the annual conference of the HDCA, 2-5 September 2014, Athens, Greece.

Analysis on the demand of the Nicaraguan education system in terms of school coverage induced changes in the population structure Nicaraguan 1997 -2010.

Nicaragua is in a stage of demographic transition and the effects on the population dynamics of the country are the basis for socio-economic future. The induced variation is characterized by a steady increase in the working age population of people aged 60 years and a decrease in the population under 15 years.

Statistics show that over the next 15 years, the Nicaraguan population of working age ( 15-64 years) will have increased by more than 1 million people , rising from 58% of the total population in 2005 to 64% in 2020 (Delgadillo 2010). The country is about to have the highest rates of population of working age in the history of the country. This type of demographic phenomenon involves great challenges in social and economic organizations.

The objective of this research was to analyze the relationship between the transformations occurring in the age structure of the Nicaraguan population and experienced in covering the country's education system , changes during the period 1997 - 2010.

For the development of this research was designed and conducted a database from the last census data from 2005 and the statistics of the Ministry of Education regarding school enrollment from 1997 to 2010.

This research examines the relationship between population growth and educational outcomes in 153 municipalities. The problem statement of this research focuses on whether changes in the Nicaraguan population structure have accompanied and in correspondence with changes in the coverage of the education system of the country for the past 10 years.

In Nicaragua , there is a significant number of young people being at the age of study for various socioeconomic reasons , do not participate in the Nicaraguan education system. Therefore , it is important to study whether there are educational inequalities between urban and rural areas for users of different school programs in the country .

This research analyzes some of the main features and trends of the demographic dividend in Nicaragua , and the impact it has had on the development of supply the Nicaraguan education system. Nicaragua is in a dilemma , since their future is conditioned to the type of response that gives the demographic dividend : it must seize the opportunity created by the demographic dividend in economic terms, or risk losing viability and economic sustainability in the coming decades.

The present study evaluated whether education policies made by the Nicaraguan state meet the demands generated by the dynamics of the population. Specifically: Has there been an increase in school coverage ? Has been evenly to all municipalities ? Nicaraguan children concluded their compulsory education ? Are there disparities in school participation between rural and urban areas ? Are there disparities in literacy rates ?

The method of analysis to show whether there is a dependency relationship between the growth of school enrollment in relation to the growth of the school-age population was through linear regression analysis and comparison of the growth rates for both variables at the municipal level departmental respectively.

This research concluded that no evidence was obtained through linear regression analysis that the rate of growth in school enrollment rates have dependence on growth of the Nicaraguan population of school age.

In education , the country has made great progress but these are still not enough as the country until 2005 municipalities had had high school delays , especially in rural areas of the country are simultaneously the most impoverished .

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