Genyk, Mykola, and Maria Senych (2009). "Eastern European way of political and social-economic transformations" Paper presented at the 6th annual conference of the HDCA, 10-12 September 2009, Lima, Peru.

The struggle for political changes was the main substance of the activity of oppositional movements of East Central Europe (ECE). ECE was the region of the greatest geopolitical changes. For the period Cold War ECE was the weakest region of Soviet Bloc. The turning-stage in Cold War became Helsinki Conference. The fixation of borders inviolability and human rights guaranteeing created preconditions for liberal evolution of Soviet totalitarianism. After Helsinki Conference organized oppositional movements emerged – Polish Independency Mutual Understanding, Ukrainian Helsinki Group, Czech Charter’77, Confederation of Independent Poland, Association of Independent Trade-Unions “Solidarity” etc. Emigration had a great influence on elaboration of transformation conceptions. The task of disassembling of Pax Sovietica was also provided for solution of complex of problems of national and social character in post-communist period. It included formation of a new geopolitical order, solution of the borders problem, national minorities, the overcoming of international stereotypes and international reconciliation.