Esquith, Stephen (2007). "Bystander Allegories" Paper presented at the 4th annual conference of the HDCA, 18-20 September 2007, New York, USA.

Now I turn to the challenge of interpreting simulations, representations and re-enactments of mass violence. I will focus on allegorical interpretive frameworks, some of which illuminate bystander complicity and others that tend to obscure the institutional dimensions of political responsibility for mass violence.