Schwenke, Stephen (2007). "African “Big Men” and the Liberation of Africa’s Oppressed" Paper presented at the 4th annual conference of the HDCA, 18-20 September 2007, New York, USA.

This paper explores the ethical qualities of leadership, and the balance needed between pragmatism of meeting basic needs, and the ability to offer an inspirational, hopeful, even transformational vision of a better future.