Koggel, Christine (2012). "A Critical analysis of recent work on empowerment: implications for gender" Paper presented at the 9th annual conference of the HDCA, 5-7 September 2012, Jakarta, Indonesia.

A flurry of publications on empowerment by powerful institutions such as the World Bank that emerged from about 2000 to 2005 was followed by a few critiques and then a seeming “lull” in the popularity of and work on empowerment. However, the concept has reappeared recently and seems to have acquired new life. In this paper, I want to critically analyze some of the new insights emerging from recent work on empowerment and its implications for gender by critically examining the World Bank’s World Development Report 2012, Gender Equality and Development. The main goal of the paper will be to explore whether this research addresses some of the more powerful objections raised against Sen’s version of the capability approach.