Empirical Data Bank

This empirical data bank is an initiative of the HDCA's thematic group on Quantitative Research Methods.

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Related Publications Year Authors Aim/Topic Of The Study Focus Type of Data Level Source Geographical Context Dimensions Considered Methodology
0 test In this article, we analyze inequality changes in Peru under the first Garcia government (1985–1990). Our findings indicate that stability in consumption inequality and a substantial decline in wealth inequality were achieved, probably thanks to the government's demand-led policies, despite their deleterious effects on other macroeconomic indicators. The following analysis reveals that inequality in most functionings, including overall well-being, diminished, as did geographical disparities. We thus offer here (i) a methodological contribution to the debate on inequality, stressing the need to go beyond consumption/income inequality if one wants to track inequality changes across time, and (ii) a contribution to the debate about the socioeconomic situation in Peru between 1985 and 1990. commodities, functionings, income, Inequality; Economic Policy; Peru secondary data micro Demographic and Health Survey; Living Standards Measurement Study Peru Education; Health; Decent Job; Living Standards. Composite indicators of wellbeing; inequality indicators; descriptive statistics.

Krishnakumar, Jaya (2008). Multidimensional Measures of Poverty and Wellbeing Based on Latent Variable Models in N. Kakwani and J. Silber (eds.), Quantitative Approaches to Multidimensional Poverty Measurement. Palgrave Macmillan New York

2009 Reviewing the most important latent variable models which form the basis of multidimensional indices of human development (or deprivation) starting
from simpler ones such as factor analysis and going up to structural equation models
capabilities, functionings secondary data macro UN Middle and low income countries for the year 2000 Latent endogenous: Health, Education, and Political freedom.
Achievement indicators: Political Rights, Civil Liberties, Voices and Accountability, Adult literacy rate, combined Gross Enrolment Ratio, Life expectancy, Infant mortality rate
Structural Equation Model, and MIMIC
2008 Proposes a suitable theoretical framework for operationalizing the capability approach using the latent variable methodology. A structural equation model is specified to account for the unobservable and multidimensional aspects characterizing the concept of human development and to capture the mutual influence among different capabilities. capabilities, functionings secondary data micro MECOVI -Bolivia Bolivia – Latin America Education and Living Conditions Structural Equation Modeling
2007 To propose a structural equation econometric model that accounts for the interdependence among latent dimensions and other observed endogenous factors and includes causal exogenous variables affecting the latent dimensions and their indicators capabilities secondary data macro Human Development Data; World Development Indicators; Worldwide Governance Research Indicators; Risk Assessment Indicators Middle income countries; low income countries Latent endogenous variables: (i) Knowledge; (ii) Health; (iii) Political Freedom.
Achievement indicators for each dimension:
(i) Adult literacy rate; gross enrollment ratio;
(ii) Life expectancy at birth; infant mortality rate; under-five mortality ra
Latent variables; Item response; Simultaneous equations

Krishnakumar, Jaya, and A. L. Nagar (2008). "On Exact Statistical Properties of Multidimensional Indices Based on Principal Components, Factor Analysis, MIMIC and Structural Equation Models" Social Indicator Researchs 86 pp. 481-496

2008 This paper reviews principal components and various latent variable models, reaffirms their appropriateness in this context, examines the statistical properties of resulting indices, gives analytical expressions of their variances and establishes certain exact relationships among them. capabilities, functionings primary data macro Methodological Paper Methodological Paper Methodological Paper Principal components and various latent variable models

Arndt, Christian, and Jurgen Volkert (2007). "A Capability Approach for Official German Poverty and Wealth Reports: Conceptual background and First Empirical Results" IAW Discussion Paper No. 27

2007 To introduce the concept of individual potentials and instrumental freedoms in the measurement of capabilities and poverty in Germany with a special focus on inequalities in gender, political participation and interdependences between financial and non financial issues of poverty. capabilities, functionings secondary data micro GSOEP, ALLBUS Germany Individual potentials as financial means, commodities and personal conversion factors and instrumental freedom Maximum Likelihood Probit
2010 To measure and to compare multidimensional poverty with income poverty in households with children and elderly in Uruguay capabilities, functionings secondary data micro UruHHS Uruguay Education, Living conditions and access to resources Bourguignon and Chakravarty axiomatic approach
2003 To include the measurement of efficiency of country specific resource allocation in the calculation of HDI. functionings secondary data macro United Nations Developing countries Life expectancy; educational attainment; Income Efficiency Analysis DEA
To measure poverty through the Human Poverty Index in a context of deprivation in multiple dimensions, focusing on developing countries. To introduce the properties of HPI functionings secondary data macro United Nations Developing countries Survival (expected incidence of mortality by age 40), education and knowledge (illiteracy) and economic deprivation (undernourishment, access to health care and safe water). Generalized weighted mean with alpha=3
To demonstrate that if a measure satisfies the anonymity, monotonicity and externality axiom instead of the all five axioms proposed in Basu and Foster (1998) then it is suitable for some specifically public policy applications. functionings secondary data micro NSSO India Literacy deprivation Axiomatic properties for the literacy deprivation measure
To operationalize Sen's framework by system dynamics functionings secondary data micro Annuario Statistico Regionale Italy Physical and psychological health; Education and Training; Social interactions System dynamics
To present a new parametric class of human development indeces that includes the original HDI as well as a family of distribution sensitive indices that satisfy all the basic properties for an index of human development functionings secondary data micro Census Mexico Health, Education, Income Extension of HDI
2005 To develop an alternative approach for the Human Development Index sensitive in the general level and the degree of inequality of each of the components of the index. functionings secondary data micro NSSO India Health, education, standards of living Extension of HID
2002 To quantify to what extent the behavior of an individual is the result of factors beyond individual control or the result of the exercise of its own preferences. To do so, the paper uses an application for the labor market assessing employability and employment status. functionings secondary data micro BHPS United Kingdom Employment Regression analysis by layers
To explore how to combine different attributes nto a single index through some arbitrary function and defining a poverty line and associated poverty measures on the basis of that index functionings secondary data micro PNAD Household Surveys (years: 1981 and 1987) Brazil Income; Education Axiomatic properties for a social welfare family of indices
To develop a measure of welfare, (e.g. "the conversion efficiency") measuring the efficiency with which individuals convert their resources into achieved functionings. functionings, Efficiency in conversion from resources into functionings secondary data micro BHPS United Kingdom Well-being; Health status; Highest academic qualification. Robust nonparametric efficiency analysis
To present a new approach to evaluate the aggregate literacy level by taking into account the intra-household externality arising from the presence of a literate member. functionings secondary data micro Indian Census (1981) India Literacy deprivation Axiomatic properties for the literacy deprivation measure
The paper contributes to the operationalisation of the capabilities approach to welfare economics by developing and analyzing data on the freedoms of adults in Argentina. Specifically, it reports on the development of a survey instrument for measuring capabilities, calculates for each respondent a Nehring-Puppe type index of their capabilities, and examines the distribution of index scores. Themain analytic part of the paper then goes on to develop a generalized linear latent and mixed model (GLLAMM) for assessing the impact of capabilities on life satisfaction, in which allowance is made for (i) unobserved heterogeneity and (ii) possible endogeneity by introducing latent individual effects and by instrumenting capability variables using income and other socio-economic variables. Our empirical results show that empathy, self-worth, goal-autonomy, discrimination, safety and stress are statistically significant determinants of life satisfaction, in a decreasing order of importance. The paper concludes by suggesting that, if replicated, the findings have profound implications for the conceptualisation and evaluation of economic progress.

capabilities, Subjective wellbeing, Freedoms, GLLAMM, Happiness, Instrumental variables, Multi-dimensionality primary data micro Capability Survey Argentina Health, Freedom of Political Expression, Freedom of Political Participation, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Thought, Emotional Capabilities, Security, Environment and Social Relations, Discrimination, Work 1. Composite Indicators and Distributional Measures
2. Latent Variable Modelling (Generalised Linear Latent and Mixed Modelling)
3. Individual Unobserved Heterogeneity
A new approach to child poverty measurement that reflects the breadth and components of child poverty - illustrated with data from Bangladesh in the period 1997-2007. It argues that child poverty should not be assessed only according to the incidence of poverty but also by the intensity of deprivations that batter poor children’s lives at the same time. functionings secondary data micro Demographic Helath Survey (DHS) Bangaldesh 1997, 2000, 2004, 2007 Nutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight), Health (immunization and medical treatment for sever illness), Safe Drinking Water, Improved Sanitation, Adequate Housing, Access to Information Counting Approach
Alkire & Foster Method
Analysis over time
This paper focuses on the methodology by which India’s 2002 Below the Poverty Line (BPL) census data identify the poor and construct a BPL headcount. Using the BPL 2002 methodology it identifies which rural families would have been considered BPL if NFHS (National Family Health Survey) data had been used rather than BPL census data. It compares these to poor families that would be identified using the same variables with the Alkire and Foster multidimensional poverty methodology. commodities, consumption secondary data micro National Family Health Survey Data India Living Standards, Health Water and Sanitation, Air Quality, Assets, Education, Livelihood, Child Status, Empowerment Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in Bhutan applying a recently developed methodology by Alkire and Foster (2007) using the 2007 Bhutan Living Standard Survey data functionings primary data micro Bhutan Living Standard Survey Data Bhutan Standard of Living, Education and Housing Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries using the Alkire and Foster multidimensional poverty measures, whose identification method is based on a counting approach. Four dimensions are considered: assets, health, schooling and empowerment functionings secondary data micro Demography and Health Surveys (DHS) Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries Standard of Living, Health, Education and Empowerment Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
This paper presents empirical results of a wide range of multidimensional poverty measures for: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay, for the period 1992–2006. functionings secondary data micro Socioeconomic Database for Latin America and Caribbean (SEDLAC) and Centre de Estudios Distributivos Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS) and World Bank Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay. Standard of Living, Health, Education and Public Services Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
This paper presents a new Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for 104 developing countries. It is the first time multidimensional poverty is estimated using micro datasets (household surveys) for such a large number of countries which cover about 78 percent of the world´s population. functionings secondary data micro Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), Multiple Indicators Health Survey (MIHS) and World Health Survey (WHS), and other National Survey 104 developing countries Health, Education and Standard of Living. Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
This paper proposes a new methodology for multidimensional poverty measurement consisting of anidentification method k that extends the traditional intersection and union approaches, and a class of poverty measures M.
functionings secondary data micro Indonesian Family Life Survey and National Health Interview Survey Indonesia and United States Health, Education and Standard of Living. Alkire & Foster Multidimensional Poverty Method
A comparison of poverty according to primary goods, capabilities and outcomes functionings secondary data micro CEREQ France Deprivation in refined functioning: labour market position, leisure, independence, debt Fuzzy set theory
Exploring ways of enlarging the measurement and understanding of human development beyond the relatively reductionist Human Development Index
functionings secondary data macro Diverse sources world Health, education, income, mental well-being, empowerment, political freedom, social relations, community well-being, inequalities, work conditions, leisure conditions, dimensions of security – political, dimensions of security – economic, environmental c Correlations
Measuring gender inequality in functionings and capabilities using the British Household Panel Study functionings secondary data micro BHPS UK Life and physical health, mental well-being, bodily integrity and safety, social relations, education and knowledge, domestic work and non-market care, paid work and other projects, shelter and environment, mobility, leisure activities, religion Descriptive statistics, chi-squares tests, correlation, stochastic dominance
Defining a new approach to specifying the cut-off levels that define the boundaries of fuzzy poverty measures functionings primary data micro Ad-hoc questionnaire South Africa Education, housing, water, sanitation, energy, jobs, health-health care, perceived well-being Fuzzy set theory and supervaluationist approach
Measuring the variation in measures of standard non- or non-exclusively economic well-being achievement not accounted for y income per capita functionings secondary data macro UN Almost all countries Human development, human poverty, health services, health status, survival, education status, gender bias, gender empowerment, income inequality, governance, happiness Spearman correlation, ranking
Proposing a structural equation econometric model to measure and estimate capabilities through a latent variable modelling approach, taking account of the interdependencies among the different capability dimensions and the influence of exogenous social, institutional and demographic factors on them. Illustration using macro-economic data. capabilities, functionings secondary data macro UN 56 countries Health, knowledge, political freedom Structural equation model (SEM)
Suggesting an econometric model to estimate children’s well-being based on a capability approach framework capabilities, functionings secondary data micro NCAER India Bodily health, sense of imagination and thought, leisure activities and play Structural equation model (MIMIC)
Studying process of adaptive expectation, with an empirical application to changes in income and satisfaction with income functionings, Subjective wellbeing secondary data micro BHPS UK One dimension (satisfaction with income), predicted by income and some socio-demographic variables Ordered logit regression
Assessment of multidimensional measure of deprivation, and methodological applications of the capability approach functionings secondary data micro SHIW Italy Health, education, social relations, labour market, housing, household economic resources Sequential stochastic dominance, deprivation index, partial and complete ranking
Identification of a list of relevant capabilities for children through a participatory bottom-up approach agency, capabilities primary data micro Ad-hoc questionnaire Life and physical health, love and care, mental well-being, bodily integrity and safety, social relations, participation, education, freedom from economic and non-economic exploitation, shelter and environment, leisure activities, respect, religion and id Descriptive statistics
Measuring two components of well-being: standards of living and quality of life functionings secondary data macro UN & WB 170 countries For standards of living: standards of health, standards of education, material well-being. For quality of life: quality of health, quality of education, quality of environment Fuzzy set theory, factorial analysis of correspondence
Proposing a framework that uses fuzzy set theory to measure human well-being according to the capability approach functionings secondary data macro UN Almost all countries Health, knowledge and freedom to communicate, income, freedom Fuzzy set theory, complete ranking
Developing a framework that uses fuzzy set theory to measure human
well-being
functionings secondary data macro UN 14 Pacific-Asian countries Health, education, income Fuzzy set theory
Proposing a framework that uses fuzzy set theory to measure human well-being according to the capability approach functionings secondary data macro UN Almost all countries Health, knowledge and freedom to communicate, income, freedom Fuzzy set theory, complete ranking
Designing an ad hoc questionnaire for directly measuring the capability approach, and exploring its relation with life-satisfaction (happiness) capabilities, functionings, Subjective wellbeing primary data micro Ad hoc questionnaire UK Happiness, health, sense of achievement, personal projects, intellectual stimulation, social relations, environment Correlation and ordered logit regression
Showing that secondary data source provides some information about capabilities, and that this can be incorporated into models of subjective well-being capabilities, functionings, Subjective wellbeing secondary data micro BHPS UK Bodily health, bodily integrity, sense, imagination and thought, emotions, practical reason, affiliation, play, satisfaction OLS regression analysis
Analysing endemic deprivation in India and the role of public action in addressing that problem functionings secondary data macro Indian national data India Health, education, income Analysis of rates and other aggregated indicators
Comparing the use of factor analysis with fuzzy set theory for the operationalization of the capability approach functionings secondary data micro PSBH Belgium Social interactions, cultural activities, economic conditions, health, psychological distress, working conditions, shelter Factor analysis fuzzy set theory
Identifying distinct dimensions in a multidimensional analysis of welfare and quality of life functionings secondary data macro Various sources USA The dimensions are not specified a priori but later, as a result of the cluster analysis ARIMA Models and entropy measures, cluster analysis
Comparison between ranking with empirical measures of functioning achievements and ranking with standard income-based measures functionings secondary data macro SHIW ISTAT Italian regions Health, education, employment, housing, safety, environment, income, social infrastructure Factor analysis, complete ranking
Comparison between a standard expenditure-based poverty measure and a specifically created composite measure of deprivation functionings secondary data micro SALDRU South Africa Education, income, wealth, housing, water, sanitation, energy, employment, transport, financial services, nutrition, health care, safety, perceived well-being Synthetic index score, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, principal component analysis, OLS regressions
Dealing with methodological issues related to the multi-dimensional analysis of well-being from the theoretical perspective of the capability approach functionings secondary data micro ISTAT Italy Housing conditions, health conditions, education and knowledge, social interaction, psychological conditions Fuzzy set theory, complete ranking
Methodological proposal for the design of sets of indicators for monitoring inequality between social groups based on large datasets. functionings secondary data micro Venezuelan Household Survey Venezuela Three dimension of Housing Adequacy: Services, Structure, and Space and Density Principal Component Analysis, Fuzzy Set Theory, ANOVA
Examining alternative econometric techniques to put into practice the capability approach for poverty and inequality measurement. Three empirical applications. functionings secondary data micro British Household Panel Data United Kingdom First two empirical applications: Health, Housing, Income Third empirical application: Satisfaction with household income, Household Income, Needs, Preference shifters Structural Equation Model (MIMIC), Axiomatic inequality measures for the general entropy class, Equivalence scale method, Ordered probit model
A measure of human development that is sensitive to gender inequality for cross-country comparison functionings secondary data macro United Nations Almost all countries Longevity, knowledge, decent living standards Scaling normalization (weighting formula with aversion to inequality), complete ranking
Measuring and monitoring progress in human development for comparisons across countries functionings secondary data macro United Nations Almost all countries Longevity, knowledge, decent living standards Scaling normalization (linear function), complete ranking
Measurement of living standard of unemployed according to the capability approach, and it's relation with some demographic variables functionings secondary data micro A survey set up by RVA Belgium Social, psychological, physical microsocial contact, activities, financial Factor analysis, regression analysis
Illustrating the difference between living standards rankings and functioning or capability rankings functionings secondary data macro United Nations Selected countries Income, the ability to live longer and avoid mortality during infancy and childhood, the ability to read and write and to benefit from sustained schooling Descriptive statistics, partial ranking